Plum has advised governments, regulators, industry associations, operators and financiers on telecommunications issues in a wide range of developed and developing countries around the world.  Drawing on our expertise in related services and markets we address the challenges posed by technology and product convergence.  We approach each client assignment afresh, drawing on engineering, economic, public policy and regulatory skills combined with our commercial hands-on experience.

Broadband policy

The importance of broadband to national economies is well recognised.  We have advised on all aspects of broadband deployment, take up, and use on both fixed and mobile networks. Plum has worked to develop national broadband plans, advised on how best to encourage the transition from copper to fibre-based connectivity, and assessed how to manage the retirement of legacy networks.  Plum has also advised clients on numerous issues related to business connectivity, ranging from the connectivity needs of SMEs to ensuring effective competition in the provision of business services.

Our work looks not only at the physical infrastructure but at the services that underpin the need for connectivity.  We have advised on how universal broadband access should be defined, and how the use of Internet-based apps and services are driving the policy framework.

Market regulation and policy

We have advised on how best to ensure that telecommunications markets work smoothly, free from economic distortions. Plum’s work has included advising regulators, operators and industry bodies on issues related to roaming, cross-border services, number portability and consumer switching. We have built and analysed network cost models for regulatory and commercial needs. Our experience further includes the design and implementation of universal service obligations, and assessing the economic costs and benefits of such an obligation. We have also conducted market overviews and analysis of telecommunications markets in a wide range of geographies.

Wholesale regulation

The regulatory expertise within Plum stems from decades of work individuals have contributed to defining, developing, advising and exercising various regimes around the world. This includes experience in network cost modelling, as well as in developing margin squeeze tests – and advising clients facing them. We have assessed the economic merits of various wholesale access options, including passive and active products, infrastructure access and dark fibre. Plum has also analysed the arguments for and against structural separation, and assessed the impact of separation across the world.


Plum has worked with regulators, industry groups and operators to ensure that competition in telecommunications markets is fair, effective and sustainable. We have worked to define and redefine relevant markets for telecommunications services to ensure that regulation is applied only where it is needed. We have also worked on issues that raise potential competition concerns, including bundling, State Aid and M&A, as well as advising on the best ways to ensure effective competition at the retail and wholesale level.


Grant Forsyth

Grant Forsyth

Grant Forsyth brings strong commercial experience to the development and application of strategy, policy, and regulation in telecommunications and the internet, having led successful in-house teams in the UK, New Zealand and globally. In these roles he has delivered significant value through improved quality of service including the first-ever regulated QoS in the UK, expanded regulated access options, self-regulated policy on the open-internet that balances the interests of access and content providers including the interconnection of CDNs, and policy responses to the transition from copper to fibre in the access network. His pragmatic application of competition law and regulation to challenges in numerous jurisdictions contributed to his serving as a member of the Board of ECTA (European Competitive Telecommunications Association) and policy council of ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers).

Grant holds a Post Graduate Diploma, EC Competition Law, from Kings College London; Master of Business Administration (MBA) from the University of Auckland and a MSC in Engineering (MSCE) from the University of Washington, Seattle.