Plum Insight – Balancing act: regulating space services

Understanding the regulations adopted by national regulators for the authorisation of space services can be a challenging task. Over the years, various authorisation schemes have evolved and been adopted in different countries. However, by its very nature, the space sector requires international cooperation, and the lack of standardisation has resulted in different requirements for the[…]

Economic assessment of frequency bands for IMT services in Kosovo

This Plum study for the Kosovo regulator ARKEP involved the valuation of the frequency bands for IMT services. Benchmarking and econometric analysis were carried out to derive the market value of six bands (800, 900, 1800, 2100, 2600 and 3500 MHz) and recommendations were provided on the appropriate auction reserve prices and spectrum fees, taking[…]

5G: the rural opportunity

Plum was engaged by a UK-based wireless services operator, to assess new commercial models for 5G deployment and assess related benefits in rural areas. Our work included detailed review of emerging regulation on spectrum management and policy issues. We also carried out primary research to assess stakeholders’ needs in rural areas, and built commercial and[…]

Next generation wholesale leased circuits cost model

The Taiwanese regulator NCC has taken a decision to adopt a cost-oriented approach for the regulation of next generation wholesale leased line services. To support the NCC in deriving appropriate wholesale prices for these services, Plum was commissioned to build a bottom-up long run incremental cost (LRIC) model. Plum, working alongside the Telecom Technology Center,[…]

Plum Insight: Maximising spectrum efficiency with private LTE

Despite continuing growth in mobile network coverage, there are many areas where enterprise users suffer from no, or poor, connectivity. Manufacturing, agricultural and transport industries in these regions suffer from their remote locations, and they often find that their ability to benefit from Industry 4.0 – the automation through connected machines – is limited. This[…]

Use cases, spectrum requirements and valuation of spectrum for private LTE

These reports examine use cases, spectrum requirements and valuation of spectrum for use by private LTE. The first report defines private LTE, considers environments where private LTE might be used focusing on industrial automation and identifies what spectrum these applications will need. To do this it sets out a methodology to characterise the identified private[…]